Methodological Paradigm of Non-Classical Science




non-classical rationality, operational relativity, complementarity principle, symmetry, indeterminism


Scientific theories and methods developed within the framework of quantum and relativistic physics are the most representative paradigmatic instantiations of non-classical science. The profile of non-classical science is exposed through the analysis of a set of epistemic ideals and methodological principles. The adoption of the principle of operational relativity of phenomenal descriptions showed that a reference to the means of observation had become an intrinsic part of scientific description strategies. The transformation of the concept of objectivity can be seen in a specific combination of operationalism with interactional phenomenalism and constructivism. The introduction of the principle of complementarity marked the deviation from the standards of a monologic and linear description of the objects under study. This principle provides the operational basis for the integration of different parts of our knowledge with regard to non-trivial cognitive situations featured by the indeterminacy relations. Another prominent methodological trend is the reconsideration of the value of strict deterministic explanation strategies in favour of probabilistically oriented approaches. Scientists have encountered a new class of regularities that are typically analysed in terms of various types of statistical and non-causal determination. Nevertheless, it would be wrong to assume that any probabilistic account of natural phenomena implies indeterminism.


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Author Biographies

Andrey GALUKHIN, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of Philosophy at the Department of History and Philosophy, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Moscow, RF). His areas of interest include epistemology, philosophy of science, history of philosophy. Galukhin is the author of 2 monographs and the author of 65 scientific articles. Recent publications: “Epistemic Regress Argument in Favor of Foundationalism in Theory of Justification”, “Existential-Analytical Substantiation of the Question of Being in M. Heidegger’s Ontology”, “A Brief History of Ancient Philosophy”.

Elena MALAKHOVA, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)

PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor in National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow, Russia; postdoctoral researcher in Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Her areas of interest include philosophy of science, philosophy of education, ethics, cultural studies. Elena Malakhova is the author of 34 scientific publications. Recent publications: “The Concept of the System and Main Paradigmatic Foundations of The System Approach”, “Conceptualisation and Formation of Systemic Consideration of Crises Phenomenon Approach”.

Irina PONIZOVKINA, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of Philosophy at the Department of History and Philosophy, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Moscow, RF). I. PONIZOVKINA is the head of the university department of the Russian Philosophical Society; the author of 120 scientific articles. Her areas of interest include social philosophy, logic, methodology of scientific research, mythological consciousness and communication.


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How to Cite

GALUKHIN, A., MALAKHOVA, E., & PONIZOVKINA, I. (2022). Methodological Paradigm of Non-Classical Science. WISDOM, 21(1), 13–26.