Gender and Career: Trends in Digital Society
Keywords:gender, gender discrimination, women's career, men's career, digitalization, digital transformation
Digitalization of society, including the labour market, noticeably changes women's and men's career expectations and career strategies. Gender philosophy, questions about gender identity, and gender inequality are questions, the answers to which are critical: “the changes in the social status of women and men in our time have fundamentally changed many familiar stereotypes” (Mikhailova, 2011). Kontakt InterSearch Russia conducted a series of studies for Forb’s magazine (Kontakt InterSearch Russia, 2021a, b, c; Forbs, 2021) that evaluated the career expectations of respondents; the qualities of managers that female and male managers lack; the presence and causes of gender discrimination; and “stop-factors” of career for men and women. It was found that female executives twice as often as male executives face gender discrimination; women more often than men consider their personal qualities as the reason for career success (men more often than women cite external aspects such as “mentor” and “good timing” among the reasons for career success). At the same time, experts noted that “the boundaries of “female” and “male” qualities are blurring” (Forbs, 2021). In our opinion, this is also due to the influence of digitalization, which is changing the content of many areas of activity.
Agenor, P.-R., Ozdemir, K. K., & Pinto Moreira, E. (2021). Gender gaps in the labour market and economic growth. Economica, 88(350), 235-270. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecca.12363
Castagnetti, C., Rosti, L., & Topfer, M. (2020). Discriminate me - If you can! The disappearance of the gender pay gap among public-contest selected employees in Italy. Gender, Work and Organization, 27(6), 1040-1076. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12442
Castano, A. M., Fontanil, Y., & Garcia-Izquierdo, A. L. (2019). ìWhy canít I become a manager?î? A systematic review of gender stereotypes and organizational discrimination. International Journal of Environmental. Research and Public Health, 16(10), 1813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101813
Castellano, R., & Rocca, A. (2018). Gender disparities in European labour markets: A comparison of conditions for men and women in paid employment. International Labour Review, 157(4), 589-608. doi:10.1111/ilr.12122
Efimova, V. (2013). Gendernaya diskriminaciya na rossiyskom rynke truda; formy proyavleniya, factory, rezultaty (Gender discrimination in the Russian labor market: Forms of manifestation, factors, results, in Russian). Vestnik Instituta Ekonomiki Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk (Bulletin of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Russian), 5, 67-75. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/gendernaya-diskriminatsiya-na-rossiyskom-rynke-truda-formy-proyavleniya-faktory-rezultaty/viewer
Forbs (2021, March 04). 59% zhenwin rukovoditeley zhertvuyut semíey radi karíery (Study: 59% of female executives sacrifice family for career, in Russian). Forbs. Retrieved March 9, 2022 from https://www.forbes.ru/forbes-woman/422511-issledovanie-59-zhenshchin-rukovoditeley-zhertvuyut-semey-radi-karery.
Grissom, J. A., Timmer, J. D., Nelson, J. L., & Blissett, R. S. L. (2021, June). Unequal pay for equal work? Unpacking the gender gap in principal compensation. Economics of Education Review. 82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2021.102114
Hedija, V. (2015). The effect of female managers on gender wage differences. Prague Economic Papers, 24(1), 38-59 https://doi.org/10.18267/j.pep.499
Islam, A., Muzi, S., & Amin, M. (2019). Unequal laws and the disempowerment of women in the labour market: Evidence from firm-level data. Journal of Development Studies, 55(5), 822-844. doi:10.1080/00220388.2018.1487055.
Kalabikhina, I. ?. (2008). Gendernaya diskriminaciya na rossiiyskom rynke truda: aktualínye predlozheniya po ustraneniyu neravenstva (Gender discrimination in the Russian labor market: Current proposals to eliminate inequality, in Russian). Retrieved April 3, 2022, from http://www.e-rej.ru/Articles/2008/Kalabikhina.pdf
Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021b, March 10). Kak zhenshchiny I muzhchiny v Rossii stroyat karíery (How women and men in Russia build careers - Kontakt InterSearch Russia, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from https://pro.rbc.ru/demo/6046ecc89a794722ac9ecaab
Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021c, June 30). Kakikh sotrudnikov ishchut kompanii? (What kind of employees are companies looking for?, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from https://kontakt.ru/blog/bestcandidates
Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021‡). Zhenskaya I muzhskaya karíera: opros rukovoditeley (Womenís and menís careers - executive survey - Kontakt InterSearch Russia, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from https://s0.rbk.ru/v6_top_pics/media/rbcpro_presentations/2021/ 756152611733914/ presentation-43617f0440344ed587e5cff1e8afb88d.pdf
Lysenko, T., & Wang, Q. (2020). Race/ethnicity, gender, and earnings of early career stem graduates in the U.S. Geographical Review, 110(4), 457-484. doi:10.1080/00167428.2019.1708742
Mikhailova, ?. V. (2011). Gendernaya filosofiya: Maskulinností i feminností (Gender philosophy: Masculinity and femininity, in Russian). Vestnik Mariiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Bulletin of Mari State University, in Russian), 6. Retrieved March 15, 2022, from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/gendernaya-filosofiya-maskulinnost-i-femininnost
Pettinicchio, D., & Maroto, M. (2017). Employment outcomes among men and women with disabilities: How the intersection of gender and disability status shapes labor market inequality. Research in Social Science and Disability, 10, 3-33. doi:10.1108/S1479-354720170000010003
Redmond, P., & McGuinness, S. (2020). Explaining the gender gap in job satisfaction. Applied Economics Letters, 27(17), 1415-1418. doi:10.1080/13504851.2019.1686111
Roshchin, S. Y. (2003). Gendernoe ravenstvo i rasshirenie prav i vozmozhnostey zhenwin v Rossii v kontekste celey razvitiya tysyacheletiya (Gender equality and womenís empowerment in Russia in the context of the millennium development goals, in Russian). Retrieved March 14, 2022, from http://www.owl.ru/rights/undp2003/3.htm
Shatrova, L. A. (2003). Gengernye stereotypy na rynke truda (Gender Stereotypes in the Labor Market of Tatarstan, in Russian). Sociologicheskie issledovaniya (Sociological Studies, in Russian), 3, 124-126. Retrieved March 14, 2022, from https://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/076/828/1219/020-ShATROVA_Lx2cA.pdf
Sterling, A. D., & Fernandez, R. M. (2018). Once in the door: Gender, tryouts, and the initial salaries of managers. Management Science, 64(11), 5444-5460. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3578.0725
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 scientific journal WISDOM
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC). CC BY-NC allows users to copy and distribute the article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes. The users may adapt – remix, transform, and build upon the material giving appropriate credit, providing a link to the license. The full details of the license are available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.