Gender and Career: Trends in Digital Society


  • Tatiana BEREGOVSKAYA State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Svetlana GRISHAEVA State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Sargis SMBATYAN Yerevan State University of Languages and Social Sciences



gender, gender discrimination, women's career, men's career, digitalization, digital transformation


Digitalization of society, including the labour market, noticeably changes women's and men's career expectations and career strategies.  Gender philosophy, questions about gender identity, and gender inequality are questions, the answers to which are critical: “the changes in the social status of women and men in our time have fundamentally changed many familiar stereotypes” (Mikhailova, 2011). Kontakt InterSearch Russia conducted a series of studies for Forb’s magazine (Kontakt InterSearch Russia, 2021a, b, c; Forbs, 2021) that evaluated the career expectations of respondents; the qualities of managers that female and male managers lack; the presence and causes of gender discrimination; and “stop-factors” of career for men and women. It was found that female executives twice as often as male executives face gender discrimination; women more often than men consider their personal qualities as the reason for career success (men more often than women cite external aspects such as “mentor” and “good timing” among the reasons for career success). At the same time, experts noted that “the boundaries of “female” and “male” qualities are blurring” (Forbs, 2021). In our opinion, this is also due to the influence of digitalization, which is changing the content of many areas of activity.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tatiana BEREGOVSKAYA, State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation

PhD in Economics, Associate Professor in the Department of Marketing at the State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Svetlana GRISHAEVA, State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation

PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology, Management Psychology, and History, State University of Management, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Sargis SMBATYAN, Yerevan State University of Languages and Social Sciences

Senior Lecturer, Brusov State University, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia.


Agenor, P.-R., Ozdemir, K. K., & Pinto Moreira, E. (2021). Gender gaps in the labour market and economic growth. Economica, 88(350), 235-270.

Castagnetti, C., Rosti, L., & Topfer, M. (2020). Discriminate me - If you can! The disappearance of the gender pay gap among public-contest selected employees in Italy. Gender, Work and Organization, 27(6), 1040-1076.

Castano, A. M., Fontanil, Y., & Garcia-Izquierdo, A. L. (2019). ìWhy canít I become a manager?î? A systematic review of gender stereotypes and organizational discrimination. International Journal of Environmental. Research and Public Health, 16(10), 1813.

Castellano, R., & Rocca, A. (2018). Gender disparities in European labour markets: A comparison of conditions for men and women in paid employment. International Labour Review, 157(4), 589-608. doi:10.1111/ilr.12122

Efimova, V. (2013). Gendernaya diskriminaciya na rossiyskom rynke truda; formy proyavleniya, factory, rezultaty (Gender discrimination in the Russian labor market: Forms of manifestation, factors, results, in Russian). Vestnik Instituta Ekonomiki Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk (Bulletin of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Russian), 5, 67-75. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from

Forbs (2021, March 04). 59% zhenwin rukovoditeley zhertvuyut semíey radi karíery (Study: 59% of female executives sacrifice family for career, in Russian). Forbs. Retrieved March 9, 2022 from

Grissom, J. A., Timmer, J. D., Nelson, J. L., & Blissett, R. S. L. (2021, June). Unequal pay for equal work? Unpacking the gender gap in principal compensation. Economics of Education Review. 82.

Hedija, V. (2015). The effect of female managers on gender wage differences. Prague Economic Papers, 24(1), 38-59

Islam, A., Muzi, S., & Amin, M. (2019). Unequal laws and the disempowerment of women in the labour market: Evidence from firm-level data. Journal of Development Studies, 55(5), 822-844. doi:10.1080/00220388.2018.1487055.

Kalabikhina, I. ?. (2008). Gendernaya diskriminaciya na rossiiyskom rynke truda: aktualínye predlozheniya po ustraneniyu neravenstva (Gender discrimination in the Russian labor market: Current proposals to eliminate inequality, in Russian). Retrieved April 3, 2022, from

Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021b, March 10). Kak zhenshchiny I muzhchiny v Rossii stroyat karíery (How women and men in Russia build careers - Kontakt InterSearch Russia, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from

Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021c, June 30). Kakikh sotrudnikov ishchut kompanii? (What kind of employees are companies looking for?, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from

Kontakt InterSearch Russia (2021‡). Zhenskaya I muzhskaya karíera: opros rukovoditeley (Womenís and menís careers - executive survey - Kontakt InterSearch Russia, in Russian). Retrieved March 16, 2022, from 756152611733914/ presentation-43617f0440344ed587e5cff1e8afb88d.pdf

Lysenko, T., & Wang, Q. (2020). Race/ethnicity, gender, and earnings of early career stem graduates in the U.S. Geographical Review, 110(4), 457-484. doi:10.1080/00167428.2019.1708742

Mikhailova, ?. V. (2011). Gendernaya filosofiya: Maskulinností i feminností (Gender philosophy: Masculinity and femininity, in Russian). Vestnik Mariiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Bulletin of Mari State University, in Russian), 6. Retrieved March 15, 2022, from

Pettinicchio, D., & Maroto, M. (2017). Employment outcomes among men and women with disabilities: How the intersection of gender and disability status shapes labor market inequality. Research in Social Science and Disability, 10, 3-33. doi:10.1108/S1479-354720170000010003

Redmond, P., & McGuinness, S. (2020). Explaining the gender gap in job satisfaction. Applied Economics Letters, 27(17), 1415-1418. doi:10.1080/13504851.2019.1686111

Roshchin, S. Y. (2003). Gendernoe ravenstvo i rasshirenie prav i vozmozhnostey zhenwin v Rossii v kontekste celey razvitiya tysyacheletiya (Gender equality and womenís empowerment in Russia in the context of the millennium development goals, in Russian). Retrieved March 14, 2022, from

Shatrova, L. A. (2003). Gengernye stereotypy na rynke truda (Gender Stereotypes in the Labor Market of Tatarstan, in Russian). Sociologicheskie issledovaniya (Sociological Studies, in Russian), 3, 124-126. Retrieved March 14, 2022, from

Sterling, A. D., & Fernandez, R. M. (2018). Once in the door: Gender, tryouts, and the initial salaries of managers. Management Science, 64(11), 5444-5460. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3578.0725




How to Cite

BEREGOVSKAYA, T., GRISHAEVA, S., & SMBATYAN, S. (2022). Gender and Career: Trends in Digital Society. WISDOM, 2(1), 21–29.