Hate Language Produced by Indonesian Figures in Social Media: From Philosophical Perspectives


  • Endang FAUZIATI Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Suharyanto SUHARYANTO Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Asep Shofian SYAHRULLAH Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Wahyu Aji PRADANA Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Irwan NURCHOLIS Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta




hate language, social media, philosophy, analysis


This study aims to: (1) describe the linguistic forms typically used in hate speech; (2) reveal the interpretation and intention of hate speech, and (3) propose its pedagogical implication. This was descriptive qualitative research with content and a philosophic analysis approach. The data were excerpts containing hate language produced by figures collected from YouTube videos. The hate speech was linguistically manifested through the use of swear words, mental abnormality terms, the animal metaphor, insults which refer to characters, Arabic terms with negative meaning, and nicknames that call out physical characteristics. According to the interpretation in the Indonesian context, the speakers use hate language to vent negative feelings, insult, condemn, accuse, show disagreement, show dissatisfaction, wish bad luck, and threaten. The hate language appears to be an Indonesian phenomenon of language use, however, its forms and functions are determined by the contextual or philosophic background of the users. Some hate language in this paper was found to mask the speakers’ defeat and incapability against the target of hate.


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Author Biographies

Endang FAUZIATI, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

PhD, Dr. of Science in Applied English Linguistic Philosophy, Professor at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Suharyanto SUHARYANTO, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

M.Pd Master of Education, Senior lecturer at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

Asep Shofian SYAHRULLAH, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Master Program Student in English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

Wahyu Aji PRADANA, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Student in English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

Irwan NURCHOLIS, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Student in English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia.


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How to Cite

FAUZIATI, E., SUHARYANTO, S., SYAHRULLAH, A. S., PRADANA, W. A., & NURCHOLIS, I. (2022). Hate Language Produced by Indonesian Figures in Social Media: From Philosophical Perspectives. WISDOM, 3(2), 32–47. https://doi.org/10.24234/wisdom.v3i2.856